Passive Voice & Causative Have


Pengertian Passive Voice

Passive voice adalah bentuk kalimat dalam bahasa Ingris yang lebih menekankan terlaksananya kegiatan atau peristiwa. Dalam pelajaran grammar and structure passive voice dibentuk dengan cara memindah posisi SUBJECT menempati OBJECT dan begitu sebaliknya. Namun pengertian semantiknya, OBJECT yang awalnya adalah SUBJECT tetaplah pihak yang melaksanakan atau melakukan kegiatan tersebut.

Rumus Passive Voice Dasar

Passive voice dalam bahasa Inggris dibentuk dengan rumus dasar sebagai berikut

Peristiwa/benda + TO BE + VERB 3 +  Pelaku
Rice is eaten by me = Nasi dimakan oleh saya
Book are read by students = Buku dibaca oleh murid-murid
I am asked by strangers = Saya ditanya oleh oleh beberapa orang asing

Rumus dasar passive voice seperti diatas akan selalu menyesuaikan dengan tenses yang dipakai.

Rumus Passive Voice Dalam 16 Tenses

Berikut adalah rumus passive voice dalam 16 tenses lengkap disertai dengan asal kalimat active voice nya

No Tenses Active Voice Passive Voice
1 Present Simple Tense S + V1 + O S + to be (am, are, is) + V3 + by + O
Many people speak English English is spoken by many people
2 Present Continuous Tense S + to be (am, are, is) + V1-ing + O S + to be (am, are, is) + being + V3 + by + O
Many people are speaking English English is being spoken by many people
3 Present Perfect Tense S + to be (am, are, is) + being + V3 + by + O S + have/has + been + V3 + by + O
Many people have spoken English English has been spoken by many people
4 Present Perfect Continuous Tense S + have/has + been + V1-ing + O S + have/has + been + being + V3 + by + O
Many people have been speaking English English has been being spoken by many people
5 Past Simple Tense S + V2 + O S + to be (was, were) + V3 + by + O
Many people spoke English English was spoken by many people
6 Past Continuous Tense S + to be (was, were) + V1-ing + O S + to be (was, were) + being + V3 + by + O
Many people were speaking English English was being spoken by many people
7 Past Perfect Tense S + had not + V3 + O S + had + been + V3 + by + O
Many people had spoken English English had been spoken by many people
8 Past Perfect Continuous Tense S + had + been + V1-ing + O S + had + been + being + V3 + by + O
 Many people had been speaking English English had been being spoken by many people
9 Future Simple Tense S + will not + V1 + O S + will be + V3 + by + O
Many people will speak English English will be spoken by many people
10 Future Continuous Tense S + will + be + V1-ing + O S + will + be + being + V3 + by + O
Many people will be speaking English English will be being spoken by many people
11 Future Perfect Tense S + will + have + V3 + O S + will + have + been + V3 + by + O
Many people will have spoken English English will have been spoken by many people
12 Future Perfect Continuous Tense S + will + have + been + V1-ing + O S + will + have + been + V1-ing + O
Many people will have been speaking English English will have been being spoken by Many people
13 Past Future Simple Tense S + would +  V1 + O S + would + be + V3 + by + O
Many people would speak English English would be spoken by many people
14 Past Future Continuous Tense S + would + be + V1-ing + O S + would + be + being + V3 + by + O
Many people would be speaking English English would be being spoken by many people
15 Past Future Perfect Tense S + would + have + V3 + O S + would + have + been + V3 + by + O
Many people would have spoken English English would have been spoken by many people
16 Past Future Perfect Continuous Tense S + would + have + been + V1-ing + O S + would + have + been +being + V3 + by + O
Many people would have been speaking English English would have been being spoken by many people

 

Pengertian Causative Verb

Causative verb adalah kata kerja yang digunakan untuk menunjukkan bahwa subject tidak bertanggungjawab langsung terhadap aksi yang terjadi melainkan seseorang atau sesuatu yang lain yang melakukan aksi tersebut.

Fungsi & Rumus Causative Verbs

  • Kalimat causative verb terbagi menjadi 2 macam, yaitu active (aktif) dan passive (pasif). Pada kalimat active causative verb, agent yang mengerjakan aksi diketahui. Sebaliknya, pada kalimat passive causative verb, agent biasanya tidak disebutkan.
  • Let, make, have, & get merupakan causative verb yang umum digunakan, ada yang menggunakan action verb berupa bare infinitive (infinitive without to) dan ada pula yang to infinitive.

 

Adapun fungsi dan rumus secara umum sebagai berikut.

Verb Fungsi Rumus Active & Passive Causative
Let membiarkan seseorang melakukan sesuatu. Active:
S + let + agent + action verb (bare infinitive) + …
Make memaksa atau sangat menyakinkan seseorang untuk melakukan sesuatu Active:
S + (make-made) + agent + action verb (bare infinitive) + …
Have menginginkan seseorang mengerjakan sesuatu untuk subjek Active:
S + (have-had) + agent + action verb (bare infinitive) + object
Passive:
S + (have-had) + object + action verb (V-3)
Get mirip dengan have namun dengan struktur kalimat yang berbeda Active:
S + (get-got) + agent + action verb (to infinitive) + …
Passive:
S + (got) + object + action verb (V-3)

Contoh Causative Verbs: Active dan Passive

Beberapa contoh causative verb pada struktur active maupun passive adalah sebagai berikut.

Rumus Verbs Contoh Causative Verbs
Active Causative Verbs have-had Lala had her friend take her result test.
The student had the teacher speak slowly.
get-got She got her parents to buy her a tennis racket.
The boy got his cat to chase a mouse.
make-made The woman made her daughter eat up the tomatoes.
The manager makes her staff work hard.
let My father lets me choose my own future carrier.
The shepherd lets his sheep graze in the meadow.
Passive Causative Verbs have-had I had my house renovated last week.
He had his book returned as soon as possible.
get-got Teddy got the money saved in the bank.
Yulia got her bedroom cleaned.

 

Reference :

http://freeenglishcourse.info/rumus-passive-voice/

http://septiani33.blogspot.com/2014/05/causative-verb.html

 

 

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